Lymphocyte Surface Diversity

Lymphocyte Chemotaxis under Agarose.

Click to see pattern left by cells after 18 hrs migrating under agarose

The images on this page are from posters we presented at FASEB (Fed Proc 38:1429,1979 & Fed Proc 39:698,1980). Jon  Warren & I adapted an 'under agarose' neutrophil chemotaxis assay (Nelson et al  J. Immunol. 115:1650, 1975) for use with lymphocytes isolated from rat thoracic duct lymph.  Lymphocytes require 18 hours incubation to go the same distance that neutrophils go in 3 hours. In the absence of a "chemotactic gradient," TDL migrate about 125 micrometers compared to 750 micrometers for lymphocytes moving toward a gradient of 'acute phase' serum from rats inoculated with endotoxin. We now know that this serum contained mixtures of chemokines with very similar physical properties. We could not isolate "the" chemotactic factor which we now realize was a family that separated with molecule sizes less than 10KDa. It was especially exciting to be able to participate in the first study to implicate chemokines in leukocyte homing and emigration with Chris Larsen, Claus Zachariae and Kouji Matsushima of J. Oppenheim's laboratory (Science 243:1464,1989). You can access additional images and information by clicking on each picture and the "links" below.

Our "under agarose" method for lymphocyte chemotaxis was used by Robert D. Hoffman et al in Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 79:3285, 1982

Click to see Orientation Histogram

Links to Online Journals:
Trends in Immunology
AAI and J. Immunol.

After fixing and removing the agar, TDL (L) or lymphoblasts (R) retain their directional polarity. Click left image to see orientations data.

Lymphocyte Migration and Homing:
Microtubules and Lymphocyte Motility
LN Reticulum and Immunity
Chemokine Receptors at Leading Edge
Kinases that Regulate T Cell Locomotion
PubMed List of Homing Links
SLC promotes emigration of T cells at HEV

Molecular Mechanisms of Homing to LN
L-selectin ligands and tethering in LN HEV

Molecular Biology of Cell Interactions:
Protein Reviews On the Web PROW videos

Imagery, Creativity, and Science:

Visit Mad Scientist Network:
Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis:
Links to Creativity Web Sites:
Lennart Nilsson's Imagery

Click to see tracings of migration paths

This is from Dorothy Heilman's movie of lymphocytes crawling. It shows the same polarized shapes as in the "under agarose" assay. Click image to see paths.


Click Bar and travel through the immune system with Art's images of lymphocytes, dendritic cells and chemokines

Home Page | Recirculation | Emigration at HEV | FRC Conduit | Locomotion

Dendritic Cells in TDL | Dendritic cells in Tissue

Vaccine Design for Mucosal and Peripheral Immunity

Immunology Lecture Notes | | Art Anderson's Curriculum Vitae

Army Medical Ethics History | The IRB Follies at PRIM&R 1997-2001

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